Georgy Sviridov


Georgiy Vasilyevich Sviridov was borne on 3 December, 1915, in the small town Fatezh, located in the steppe Kursk province.

His father was post employee, and mother - by teacher. In the beginning of revolution the father of Georgiy entered the Communist Party and in 1919 perished during the Civil War.
From nine years Georgiy Sviridov lived in Kursk. There Yuri (so Sviridov they called in the childhood) began to learn the piano. But soon occupations ceased: it is much more than piano, the young amateur of music drew balalaika. Sviridov took it in one of his comrades and soon by ear he learned to play so that it was accepted into the amateurish orchestra of Russian people tools.

In the summer of 1929 it entered into the musical school. After finishing school, it continued occupations by music in another well-known teacher - M. krutyanskogo.

On its council in 1932 Sviridov went to Leningrad and entered into the musical technical school for the class of the piano, which led the professor I. braudo. At that time Sviridov lived in the hostel and in order to feed, it played in the evenings in the cinema and in the restaurants. Under the management of professor Braudo Sviridov very rapidly improved performer technology. However, after only half a year its teacher was convinced of the fact that Sviridov has the innate gift to composition, and it attained its transfer into the composer department of technical school, into the class, which well-known musician m. Yudin led. However, malnutrition and critical operation blew up the health of youth, for it it was necessary to interrupt studies and to leave for some time to Kursk, at the native land. After being collected forces and after strengthening health, in the summer of 1936 Sviridov entered into the Leningrad conservatory and he became the laureate of nominal allowance im. A. Lunacharskiy. Professor p. Riazanov, whom through half a year replaced D. Shostakovic, was there its first teacher. Under the management of his new teacher Sviridov completed the work on the piano concert, whose premier it took place during the decade of the Soviet music, dedicated to the twentieth anniversary of revolution, simultaneously with the fifth symphony of Shostakovic. Together with Sviridov in Shostakovic learned another well-known in the future composer yu. levitin. For Sviridov Shostakovic became not only teacher, but also elder friend for life. In Shostakovic‘s class Sviridov stayed four years and finished the conservatory in the summer of 1941.

The first symphony and concert for the stringed tools became his exhaust work. Up to 1944 Sviridov lived in Novosibirsk, where was evakuirovana Leningrad philharmonic society. Like other composers, it begins to write military songs, from whom most known became, perhaps, the "song of daring" to A. surkov‘s verses. Furthermore, he wrote music for the plays of the evakuirovannykh into Siberia theaters. At that time for Sviridov for the first time it was necessary to work for the musical theater, and it created the operetta "it was stretched sea widely", in which it was told about life and fight of Baltic seamen in besieged Leningrad. Sviridov‘s operetta became the first musical- dramatic work, dedicated to war. It was set in several theaters and many years did not disappear from the scene. But in 1960 Sviridov‘s operetta became basis for the musical telecine film, which was made on the central television.

In 1944 Sviridov returned into Leningrad, while in 1950 he settled in Moscow. Now it no longer should it was prove its right to the independent creation. He equally easily writes serious, and light music. Its compositions are diverse also in the genres: this of symphony and concerts, oratorio and cantata, song and romances. Furthermore, Sviridov is the creator of the interesting musical genre, which he named "musical illustration". Composer seemingly tells literary work by the means of music. This is, first of all, the cycle, dedicated Pushkin‘s narrative "snow-storm". But the main genre, from which the composer parts never, is song and romance. Sviridov not only writes romances to the classical texts (R. Burns, A. isaakyana), but also uses as the basis the folk songs as, for example, he this made in the cantatas "Kursk songs" and "wooden Russia".

His music is characterized by simplicity and some by special clarity. Possibly; therefore young musicians use many compositions of Sviridov in their training practice. World glory to Sviridov brought the staggering choral cycles ("decembrists" for the words Of a. Pushkin and poet- decembrists, the "poem of Sergey Esenin‘s memory", "pathetic oratorio" according to V. Mayakovskiy, "five songs about Russia" for the words Of a. blok et al.). However, Sviridov worked also in the popular genres, for example, in the operetta ("flames", "it was stretched sea widely"), in the cinema ("resurrection", "gold calf", etc.), in the dramatic theater (music to A. raykin‘s plays, the "Don Cesar de bazan" et al.).

Civil dirge and burials Of g. Sviridov took place on 9 January in Moscow.

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